Respiration - Test your understanding, tips, resources and a quiz


Oxygen is the final electron acceptor. It oxidises the final carrier in the ETC on the inner mitochondrial membrane and is reduced to water.

Hydrogen ions flow from the inter membrane space into the matrix via ATP synthase, this electrochemical gradient phosphorylates ADP.

Hydrogen ions are pumped from the matrix into the inter membrane space, using the energy from the electrons flowing along the ETC. The electrons come from the oxidation of food, transferred by coenzymes NAD and FAD.

Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm. Link and Krebs in the matrix. Link and Krebs produce carbon dioxide by the removal of a carboxyl group.

Fermentation is just glycolysis with a different way of regenerating NAD (from NADH) by the reduction of pyruvate (or ethanal).

Substrate level phosphorylation is the direct addition of phosphate to ADP, occurs in glycolysis (4 ATP) and Krebs (once per turn), chemiosmosis is H ions flowing through ATP synthase.

Cristae give a larger surface area for oxidative phosphorylation

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